just print in the large sense, all printed matter; in a narrower but widespread usage, a synonym for press, used to refer to newspapers, magazines, and other periodicals. A fundamental way of telling the public and disseminating ideas, print is an effective weapon of political and social struggle. It’s an educational tool which may be utilized to spread scientific knowledge, contribute to cultural development, and make a world view.

Printing arose in Europe in the mid 15th century. Until radio and television began competing as info sources some 5 centuries later, print was the chief means of mass communication as well as the foremost way to convey and preserve ideas and knowledge. The first printed works were leaflets, brochures, and books, with journals and papers first appearing in the first as well as middle of the 17th century, respectively. The very first press agencies appeared in the mid 19th century. Despite the assertions of some theoreticians, print didn’t lose its importance and function when radio and television developed in the twentieth century; on the contrary, the continuing development of the print media throughout the world attests to expansion and extension of both function and importance of print.

The social role of the print media is determined by those that control the tools and materials (printing presses, paper, so forth) and also the means for distribution. Print was first used primarily by the church to reinforce and spread religious ideology through the publication of religious literature. In the course of historical development, the church gradually lost the monopoly of its on the religious life of society, along with a secular press arose to express and defend the ideology of the ruling classes. In the era of advanced capitalism, the press has turned into a means by which the bourgeoisie exerts ideological pressure on the workers. From the battle with the conservative press, which obscured the understanding of the masses, there emerged a revolutionary and progressive press, which opposed the prevailing ideology and system. The groundbreaking press grew and developed, causing it to be hated and persecuted by all reactionary forces.

The history of the print media is loaded with profoundly dramatic events. Books containing scientific discoveries and advanced ideas were burned; frequently, the authors themselves were also burned. A huge number of works have been placed on the Index of Forbidden Books by the papal Inquisition, censorship started to be ubiquitous, and groundbreaking works were confiscated and destroyed. Despite all obstacles, nonetheless, the progressive revolutionary democratic press went on to exist; examples include the totally free Russian press, which published outside the Russian Empire, and the underground press.

The growth of Marxism in the mid 19th century and its subsequent spread heralded the start of a brand new, revolutionary proletarian press, an important weapon in the struggle against exploiters. In Russian federation, Marxist ideas were widely disseminated by the Bolshevik press, whose moving force and organizer was V. I. Lenin.

After the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russian federation, the very first steps were taken to create a genuinely national press. The opposition of the bourgeois press had first to be broken and the material conditions for a Soviet press created. The Decree on the Press, issued on Oct. twenty eight (Nov. ten), 1917, proved decisive in this regard; it made the issuance of counterrevolutionary publications not possible and transferred probably the largest private printing offices to the government of peasants and workers. The Decree of the Central Executive Committee Regarding State Publishing, adopted on Dec. twenty nine, 1917 (Jan. eleven, 1918), laid the foundation for Soviet book publishing.

The Communist Party constantly supervised the development and practical activity of the press, and does so to this particular day. The party considers the press an effective tool for propagandizing, agitating, and organizing, an essential means of influencing the very broadest masses 8th ed., 1970, vol. 2, p. eighty five). V. I. Lenin thought the chief job of the press lay in serving as an instrument of socialist construction 5th ed., vol. thirty six, p. 192) and also issued a call to transform the press from an organ mainly devoted to communicating the political news of the day right into a major organ for educating the mass of the population in economics (ibid., p. 146).

In the period when the press system was getting created in the USSR, pertinent issues were made the topic of special investigations at a number of party congresses. In 1919 the Eighth Congress of the RCP(B) defined the simple techniques for party direction of the press. In 1922 the Eleventh Congress of the RCP(B) indicated that party and political supervision of the whole press should be intensified. Each party committee should designate special cadres to work for the press

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